"What is striking is that the learning activities where the initiative lies with the employee form the largest group here: almost 90% of learning is occurring spontaneously during work – ‘experience on the job’, networking with colleagues’ and ‘consulting manuals and instructional materials’. This 90% of learning is called informal learning. It is learning at which the planning, steering and control, for the larger part, lies with the learner. This is in contrast with formal learning at which the organization is responsible for planning, steering and control of learning. The informal learning can scarcely be planned and steered, but an organization can, however, support informal learning." - Bob Mosher, Sustainable learning and support in 21C enterprises, LearningGuide 2004 Organizationally, the other 90% of performance change is not in the scope of the job of the organizations that deliver training. Realistically, the 90% has to be in the scope of anyone who drives performance change, because the 10% alone has no ROI without it. Bob's model demonstrates “Five Moments of Need,” which provide an overarching framework for helping learners become and remain competent in their individual and collective work. Here they are:
- When people are learning how to do something for the first time (New);
- When people are expanding the breadth and depth of what they have learned (More);
- When they need to act upon what they have learned, which includes planning what they will do, remembering what they may have forgotten, or adapting their performance to a unique situation (Apply);
- When problems arise, or things break or don’t work the way they were intended (Solve); and,
- When people need to learn a new way of doing something, which requires them to change skills that are deeply ingrained in their performance practices (Change).